Kazakhstan is post-Soviet Union country, the world`s ninth largest country and the largest landlocked country. They proclaimed their independence on 26 of December 1991.
History of Kazakhstan
In the 10th century the Seljuk Turkish Empire have reached all the south area of the present territory of Kazakhstan, which after the 13th century belonged to Dzsingisz Khan . The Kazakh Khanate was established on this area in 15th century. They fought with kalmucks, therefore they asked for Russian protectorate, which was in effect from 1730 until 1750. From the middle of the 19th centuary, the area came under the Russian rule, later in 1920 joined as an Kyrgyz ASSR to the Soviet Union. In 1925 the name was changed to Kazakh ASSR. From 1936 it was one of the republics of USSR until 1991. After the declaration of independence it joined to the CIS. In October 1990, Kazakhstan declared itself a sovereign republic within the Soviet Union. They proclaimed their independence on 26 of December 1991.
In the first years after independence, significant reforms have been implemented. Nurszultan Nazarbajev, who is now the head of the state, in 1989 became the head of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, and in 1991, he was elected as a President of the Republic. He did significant steps towards the establishment of market economy. From 2000 there is significant economic growth in the country. High oil, gas, mineral resources inventory was explored. Since the break-up of the Soviet Union in Kazahstan, with its 16 Million population the number of the Kazahs has been rising, while the number of settled Russians and Ukrainians reduced. The most significant decline of ethnic Russians. While in the early nineties 36% of the population were ethnic Russians, today according to some sources, it decreased by 23% due to repatriation to Russia.
The form of government is a presidential republic. The President as head of state, at the same time the head of the army and has a veto in the parlamentary legislation. The prime minister chairs in the Cabinet of Ministers and serve Kazakhstan as the Head of the Government. In the Cabinet there are 3 deputy prime-ministers and 16 ministers. From January 10. 2007 the Prime Minister is Karim Maszimov. Kazakhstan`s parliament is bicameral, consisting of the lower house (Majlis) and upper house (Senate). The Majlis includes 77 members, the Senate - 39. The country has 14 areas and two regional towns (Almaty and Astana). Baikonur which is rented by Russia has a special status.
Since 2007, the kazah President, Nurszultan Nazarbayev is the honorary leader of Kumans in Hungary. Close relations have been established with the Hungarian Society of Kumans. Kazakhstan is actively involved in the cultural life of the Kuman community of Karcag. On the north-east of Kazahstan (according to their legends around 1500 years before) live the tribe of „madjar”-s (hungarians). In this scarcely populated area lives about 2000 families who call themself madjar, although their language is Kazakh. With the exception of the last few decades they didn’t know that they can have relatives among other nations. Genetic studies conducted in the 90s (assisted by Hungarian researchers) based on the comparative studies of gene markers in the control groups showed that with inhabitants of Alföld (Plain) they are in very close relation.
Research in 2006 showed a genetic link between the present Hungarians and the Madjar tribe living in Kazakh territory. After this, the relations became more deeply, as a result of the activities of anthropologist Bíró András, they convened the Kurultáj, a meeting of tribal Madjars. The main purpose of the event was to gather all the madjars who is living on area of Kazakhstan for a few days. In 2007 in media this event, the visit of Hungarian delegation, had a special place, and since that time the Kurultáj events still can mobilize even all the Kazah media.
In the past, during the existence of the Soviet Union, between Kazakhstan and Hungary was well developed a bilateral trade, and actually at that time the Kazakhs started to like the hungarian agricultural products and medications. The disintegration of the Soviet bloc in the early days slightly inhibited the development of the existing Kazakh-Hungarian relations, nowdays, however, the two countries are interested in activating a positive cooperation in various fields, particularly in the commercial and economic area.
Kazahstan takes a 3rd place as a partner of Hungary in the field of trade and commerce among partners in the CIS countries, after Russia and Ukraine. Quantity of common traffic grows every year. Currently in Kazakhstan now works around 58 Hungarian and Hungarian-Kazakh joint companies.
Beggining of the relations of two countries.
Hungary was among the first to accept the Republic of Kazakhstan, based on the government statement in 26th of December 1991 about the recognition of independence of CIS countries. Admission of diplomatic relations on 2nd of April 1991, was made by mutual exchange of notes. Kazakhstan – because of its common historical, cultural and linguistic roots - has become as one of the most important trade-economic, political, cultural, educational and scientific partner in Central Asia. Chairman of the Kazakh-Hungarian Intergovernmental Economic Commission was chosen in September 2010, Varga Mihály, the current Minister of Economic Affairs who was in that time a Secretary of State.
The Consulate of the Republic of Kazakhstan opened in February 1998 in Karcag, with the leadership of Laszlo Horvath, the honorary consul of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Exactly in this city, in the center of Nagykunság, because here are living the Kuman descedants, who are related to the Kazakh kipchaks and take care of this relationship till today. The functions of the agency include the representation of the interests of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the region, later as well the kazah, hungarian and other national citizens relevant affairs. The embassy is closely working with Embassy of Republic of Kazahstan and with Municipality of Karcag. The honorary consul`s work significantly contributed to the development of the two countries` business and cultural relations.
In Karcag was held the first day of the culture of independent Kazakhstan in 1996. The event took its place at the the richly decorated yurts. There was an opportunity to taste Traditional Kazakh food, and all-day musical programs was entertaining the Hungarians, allow them to meet for the first time the Kazakh people`s culture. The Kazakh cultural delegation arrived in Budapest in 2000. On the Hősök square, including the show of Kazakh artist group, the visitors could get acquainted with Kazah cuisine.
Between the two countries, the big momentum of the cultural connections was, when the Kumans in Hungary elected the President Nazarbayev as a honorary captain. The ethnographers of the two countries found out the history of kipchaks in Hungary and Kazakhstan.
Szőcs Géza, who at that time was Minister of State, represented Hungary on the event of Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) for Tolerance and on anti-discrimination conference in Kazakhstan`s capital, Astana. During the conference Szőcs Géza had a bilateral discussions with members of the government of Kazakhstan, with Muhtar Kul-Muhammed minister of culture and Tujmebajev Zsanszeit minister of Education.
The Barsz Kazakhstan - Hungarian Foundation was established in February 1998, with the aim to widen the economic, scientific, cultural and sport relations. Because of the mapping the investment opportunities in the Foundation for Chamber of Commerce and Industry in 1999 there was a conference, where the heads of hundreds of Hungarian company were presented, but also appeared the Hungarian government officials as well. The Hungarian government was represented by Fónagy János, the minister of economic of that time.
With the cooperation of Hungarian - Kazakh Intergovernmental Committee, which firstassembly was in 1995 in Almaty, important agreements were reached. Cooperation between the two countries was an important stage in the medical and pharmaceutical co-ordination, as well as industry, energy, agriculture sector, small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as the use of common transport channels and terminals.
The Hungarian-Kazakh trade reached a record level in 2008. A year later, in 2009 due to the global economic crisis, the Hungarian imports decrease in half, and the exports - less than a third. Despite the relapse in 2009, the value of hungarian export was about twelve times more, and of imports - nine times. compare to 2003 result. An important component of bilateral economic relations is Hungarian export services, which has an amount of $ 100 million per year. Hungarian invesments in Kazakhstan tipically relized by Hungarian subcontractors. In Kazakhstan (according to Kazakh data) currently 58 joint venture was registered. The visit of Prime Minister of Hungary, Viktor Orban in Kazakhstan, in 2012 indicated that the issue of the relationship between the two nations will get a distinguished role also in the future.
Relationships between the regions have developed nicely, featured event was the year 2000 when the delegation of the district of South Kazakhstan visited Hungary. With the delegation also arrived artists, folk and contemporary music performers who have introduced us the Kazakh songs. The partners were agreed in cooperation about crop system, viticulture, agriculture, crop-hide production, sweet manufacturing and establishment of Joint Ventures.
During the visit of Astana’s Mayor were signed a few Sister City Agreements and also was organised a business forum for these cities. Budapest held cultural days in the summer of 2002 in Kazahstan.
The primary school number 154, located in Almaty bears the name of famous turkologist researcher Stephen Kongur Mándoki. It is an institutional tradition to study the activity and researches of Stephen Kongur Mándoki and the close attechment between our nations. There is a street in Almaty which got the name of Mándoki Kongur Stephen and soon in Budapest in the park Városliget will be given the name of Astana for one of the avenues.